Department of Education and Training Victoria

The initiation “curriculum” does not usually include practical subjects. Instead, it consists of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion, myths, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge. Primitive people in some cultures regard the body of knowledge constituting the initiation curriculum as most essential to their tribal membership. Within this essential curriculum, religious instruction takes the most prominent place.

Despite favourable studies on effectiveness, many people may still desire to choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons. Charter schools are another example of alternative education, which have in the recent years grown in numbers in the US and gained greater importance in its public education system. There is disagreement in the academic literature on whether education is an evaluative concept. So-called thick definitions affirm this, for example, by holding that an improvement of the learner is a necessary requirement of education. However, different thick definitions may still disagree among themselves on what constitutes such an improvement. Thin definitions, on the other hand, try to give a value-neutral account of education.

The Aztecs also had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means “the art of raising or educating a person”, or “the art of strengthening or bringing up men”. This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, and reinforced by community living.

  • Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs , is for U.S. graduating college seniors, graduate students, professionals & artists.
  • India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students.
  • Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities.
  • There are movements for education reforms, such as for improving quality and efficiency of education towards relevance in students’ lives and efficient problem solving in modern or future society at large, or for evidence-based education methodologies.

Usually, formal education takes place in a school environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject. The International Standard Classification of Education was created by UNESCO as a statistical base to compare education systems. In 1997, it defined seven levels of education and 25 fields, though the fields were later separated out to form a different project. The current version ISCED 2011 has nine rather than seven levels, created by dividing the tertiary pre-doctorate level into three levels. It also extended the lowest level to cover a new sub-category of early childhood educational development programs, which target children below the age of three years.

Another classification is based on the social institution responsible for education and may include categories for institutions like family, school, civil society, state, and church. Studies found that automation is likely to eliminate nearly half the jobs in developed countries during roughly the next two decades. Automation is therefore considered to be a major factor in a “race between education and technology”.

Managing school finances

The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476.

Teaching and Learning Toolkit

The outcome is formal education—the school and the specialist called the teacher. India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students. In 2004, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched EDUSAT, a communications satellite providing access to educational materials that can reach more of the country’s population at a greatly reduced cost. After the public school system was widely developed beginning in the 19th century, alternative education developed in part as a reaction to perceived limitations and failings of traditional education.

Over 600 million children and adolescents worldwide are unable to attain minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics, even though two thirds of them are in school. For out-of-school children, foundational skills in literacy and numeracy are further from grasp. Yet, for too many children across the globe, schooling does not lead to learning. Research has found that education is the strongest determinant of individuals’ occupational status and chances of success in adult life.

Tentang Google for Education

Some parents of voucher recipients reported high levels of satisfaction, and studies have found increased voucher student graduation rates. Some studies have found, however, that students using vouchers to attend private schools instead of public ones did not show significantly higher levels Education News of academic achievement. The report showed some cases of successful voucher where there was an oversupply of quality private places and an efficient administrative authority and of subsidy programs. Evaluations of the effectiveness of international support to the sector are rare.